Robotic knee replacement surgery is becoming increasingly popular, with even the National Institute for Heart Research (NIHR) recently funding a trial into its potential benefits for the NHS.

However, there are still misconceptions about precisely what this surgery entails. Here, leading Consultant Knee Surgeon, Mr Neil Hunt, answers the most frequently asked questions during consultations at his London, Leeds and York clinics.

What exactly does robotic knee surgery involve?

Prior to surgery, CT scans will be performed, and information on the patient’s unique anatomy will be fed into the software programme. This helps the surgeon plan the surgery exactly before the patient even reaches the operating table.

During surgery, Neil guides the Mako robotic arm to remove the affected areas of the joint while preserving as much healthy bone as possible. The system also then aids him in precisely positioning the prosthetic implant.

Does a robot perform the surgery?

All surgical decisions, such as the incision and placement of the implant, remain in the surgeon’s hands.

One factor in the eventual success of the procedure is the sizing and positioning of the implant, and clinical studies have indicated that robotic software delivers a greater degree of accuracy. This means improved joint stability and implant longevity, as well as greater patient satisfaction.

However, the other important factor is the surgeon’s skill and experience. Technological advances can potentially improve patient outcomes, but they are not a replacement for the surgeon’s expertise.

How safe is robotic surgery?

All surgery carries risks associated with the anaesthetic used, the incision and the manipulation of the soft tissues and bone; these are the same for robotic and conventional joint surgery. Neil will discuss these in full at your consultation.

However, clinical studies have indicated that Mako can help reduce certain risks as there is less tissue damage. 

Is a robotic knee replacement less painful than conventional surgery?

The comprehensive pre-planning and greater accuracy typically mean smaller incisions and less trauma to the surrounding bone and tissue, so patients should experience less pain and faster recovery after robotic knee replacement.

In a 2022 clinical study, Mako patients surveyed after six months reported lower pain scores than those who received a conventional joint replacement.

Am I a suitable candidate for robotic knee replacement?

Surgery is considered if conservative, non-surgical methods fail to address the pain and loss of mobility synonymous with wear-and-tear osteoarthritis. If you are a good candidate for traditional knee replacement, you will be suitable for robotic surgery.

During your consultation, Mr Neil Hunt will carefully explain the potential benefits and complications so you’re fully informed before deciding to proceed. Contact the hospital at which you would like to be seen or call Charissa Sullivan on 07724 909 414  to arrange an appointment to discuss robotic surgery and if you are suitable.

Graham Morris first met Mr Neil Hunt 13 years ago when Neil performed successful knee reconstruction surgery after a number of previous knee operations by other surgeons did not provide the desired results. This gave Graham the confidence to undergo robotic-assisted partial knee replacement when he started to experience wear and tear issues in his other knee.

I first met Neil in 2011 when he performed successful medial patella-femoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction surgery on my right knee. I had suffered a sporting injury in 2002 and had undergone numerous attempts to repair it, all unsuccessful. After just one operation with Neil, it was fixed. I thought at the time, I’ll remember him for the future!

I then had trouble with my left knee as a consequence of wear and tear, probably because I’d spent years and years overcorrecting due to the issues with my right knee. For the last few years, I’ve been carrying terrible pain in my left knee with constant swelling.

The last straw was summer 2023. We went on holiday twice, and when you realise you’re not even enjoying the holidays anymore, you know you can’t wait any longer. Also, we’d had our first grandson, and I thought, if there’s ever a reason to get this resolved, then this is it.

My knee replacement consultation

I visited Neil, and he recommended a partial knee replacement on the medial side of my left knee using robotic-assisted technology. Knowing how well he had performed the surgery on my right knee, I trusted him absolutely.

The operation was on 20 January. When I woke up from the operation, I was still under the influence of the anaesthetic, but I could tell almost straight away that the pain I’d been carrying before was gone.

I took codeine for the first day and then did not need any more pain relief. For months before the operation, I’d been on naproxen to control the swelling and omeprazole to protect my stomach, so it’s been fantastic not to rely on any medication.

One big difference this time is that I listened to the advice. When I returned home, I rested it, elevated it, controlled the swelling, and did all the recommended exercises. That’s a mistake I’ve made in the past, believing that you can recover quicker than they say. So, maybe that’s one good thing about ageing!

After four weeks, there was no swelling, and the knee felt brand new. I saw the physio, who couldn’t believe I had a full range of motion in my left leg. He asked me to jump on the bike, and I did ten minutes with no discomfort. He was very impressed with my recovery.

Once you have a knee replacement, it’s like you join a club, and suddenly everyone you meet has had a similar op. Talking to them, I have realised how lucky I’ve been with my recovery and how successful the operation has been.

Within six weeks, I was back to work. I love cycling and hadn’t been able to ride for at least a year, but now I’m back on the bike. I can’t run, but I wouldn’t want to anyway! After a certain age, and after my experience, you need to protect your joints. My grandson is now 18 months old and weighs a ton, but I can carry him around without problems.

I have tried to work out why I have had the experience I’ve had, and maybe it’s a smidge of luck, but I think the robotic-assisted surgery helped as you get pinpoint accuracy. My background is in engineering, and after I consulted with Neil, I researched Mako technology, and it really appealed to me.

Knee replacement timing

Timing was also a factor. I was waiting until I retired in two years. Then I thought, why wait? I believe there are lots of people out there waiting for the ‘right time’ to have the operation, and my advice is to go for it if it is affecting your quality of life.

Also, if I’d waited for another two or three years, there would have been more damage, and I might not have achieved the result I have. I was 57 and relatively fit, and my body adapted to it really quickly. However, if you get to the point that you are hardly walking, then you are less likely to return to many of the activities you’d enjoyed previously.

The main factor, though, is that I knew I had an excellent surgeon and could trust him. I have seen many knee surgeons with my previous problems, and from the beginning, Neil was different. He was able to articulate the outcome in a way that was meaningful to me, the patient, and gave me confidence that he would deliver this outcome for me. Which he did and I couldn’t be happier with it – it’s transformed my life.

If you would like to find out if you are suitable for robotic knee replacement, you can make an appointment with Mr Neil Hunt at one of his clinics or call Charissa Sullivan on 07724 909 414.

Although age is still a critical factor in the progression of knee osteoarthritis and the need for a knee replacement, we are seeing increasing numbers of younger patients presenting with advanced wear and tear of the knee joint. Physically demanding careers, active lifestyles, a boom in high-intensity sports and rising obesity levels all play a role.

Conservative management such as painkillers, injections, a knee brace, physiotherapy and an exercise programme can reduce symptoms and it is important that these options are optimised before considering surgery. When non-operative options fail to relieve pain and stiffness, surgery can alleviate the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis and restore the high level of function desired by the younger patient.

Although improvements in implant materials and technological advances such as the Mako Robotic-Arm Assisted software are positively impacting joint replacement longevity, total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients is associated with a high risk of future revision surgery. However, if only one compartment of the joint is affected, another option is knee osteotomy, which redirects the load passing through the relatively unaffected compartment.

This procedure has recently been in the spotlight, as BBC news presenter Karin Giannone announced she would be off air for a while, recovering from an osteotomy operation.

The 50-year-old news anchor is an avid runner and revealed she had needed the procedure for many years but hoped to be “up and running again” very soon.

As in Karin’s case, a knee osteotomy is usually recommended for younger patients who are still active with early-stage knee arthritis. This option delays the need for a knee joint replacement and allows younger patients to maintain an active lifestyle for many years, whereas a TKR may restrict what activities they can enjoy, such as high-impact sports. If arthritis progresses, a knee replacement remains an option in the future.

Patients who undergo osteotomy can typically expect to achieve the same or higher levels of pain relief and function than patients who undergo a knee replacement but without the long-term implications of being committed to an artificial knee for life and the potential need for revision surgery.

Knee osteotomy or knee replacement?

A recently published Canadian study found that a knee osteotomy could delay the need for a knee replacement by ten years or even more.

The tibia or shin bone is reshaped during the procedure to relieve pressure on the knee joint. Correcting alignment shifts the load to the less diseased part of the knee joint, improving pain and function.

The researchers found that of nearly 600 patients who underwent a high tibial osteotomy, 95% did not need a total knee replacement within five years, and 79% did not need one within ten years. Knees treated at the earliest stages of osteoarthritis had the highest longevity, with 87% not requiring a TKR within ten years.

Even in patients not usually considered good candidates for high tibial osteotomy, such as women and those with later-stage disease, 70% did not need a knee replacement within ten years, the researchers found.

Mr Neil Hunt analysed more than 600 osteotomies while on fellowship in Australia in 2003 and found that at 5-12 years of follow-up, fewer than 20 of those patients had needed to undergo knee replacement.

Knee osteotomy is not widely offered by many knee surgeons; it requires very specialist training as well as careful planning and thought yet it provides a viable alternative with many potential benefits to younger patients. Some patients may not be suitable for the procedure – patients must keep their weight off the knee for at least a month after an osteotomy, so they must be strong enough to use crutches, for example.

Neil always considers osteotomy as a surgical option for suitable patients and regularly performs this surgery. His patients who have undergone this procedure have reported the benefits of being pain-free and of enjoying being able to return to an active lifestyle including skiing, hill-walking (one patient recently enjoyed a 27 mile walk in the Lake District), climbing in the Alps and playing football with their grandchildren.

If you would like more advice on whether you are suitable for a knee osteotomy, you can make an appointment with Mr Neil Hunt at one of his clinics or call Charissa Sullivan on 07724 909 414.

The development of robotic knee replacement can be traced back to the early 2000s, and an increasing body of clinical research has been published to quantify its benefits. Recently, a study presented at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons meeting found that the use of robotic technology reduced the need for manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) post-procedure.

MUA may be recommended after surgery when patients are unable to regain a good range of movement following surgery.

The study authors are based at the Hospital of Special Surgery, the world’s largest academic medical centre specialising in musculoskeletal health, and they analysed data from 21,893 knee replacement surgeries performed between April 2008 and December 2022. They found that the use of robotic surgery led to a significant decrease in the number of patients needing MUA; 2.7% of patients with robotic-assisted surgery and 3.7% of patients whose surgery was performed without this technology.

They concluded that more precise positioning of the new knee implant reduced the risk of post-surgery MUA. This benefit of robotic knee replacement technology is one of the many identified by clinical studies into Mako robotic total knee replacement since its introduction in 2016.

Greater accuracy and precision

The ability to preoperatively plan using the Mako technology can assist in implant selection. Robotic arm-assisted technology requires a preoperative CT scan, which is used to perform 3D templating. In a 2017 study, it was found that the software predicted component size precisely in 96% of femoral implants and in 89% of tibial baseplates. In comparison, studies using a 2D technique predicted the correct implant size in 43.6% to 68% of cases.

Implant survivorship

The longevity of an implant is also a factor in the success of a total knee replacement. In a special report from the Australian Orthopaedic Association, statistically lower revision rates for Mako robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty over computer navigated total knee arthroplasty.

Functional outcome

Encouraging functional outcomes were found in a study published in 2021 that investigated functional recovery in terms of length of stay in hospital, return to work, and return to driving. All but two of the patients studied returned to driving at an average of 45 days and 90% returned to work, with 16% returning within three weeks.

An even more recent, large-scale study of over 10,000 patients evaluated hospital length of stay and found that the proportion discharged home was significantly higher for patients who underwent robotic-assisted total knee replacement than conventional surgery.

A UK-based trial demonstrated significantly early postoperative results for patients with less postoperative pain, less need for pain relief, less postoperative blood loss, less time to achieve a straight leg raise and less time to hospital discharge.


If you would like more advice on the potential benefits of robotic knee replacement, you can arrange a consultation with Mr Neil Hunt by making an appointment at one of his clinics or by calling Charissa Sullivan on 07724 909 414.

For those running the London Marathon on 21 April, you’ll now be entering the tapering stage, reducing your weekly mileage and allowing your joints to recover, muscles to repair, and body to recharge for that final test of your endurance.

Could running actually be good for knees?

For years, it has been perceived that running is incredibly damaging to your knees, yet several studies published recently have debunked that myth.

In a study published last year, researchers at Northwestern University in the US explored the relationship between long-distance running and knee arthritis. They established that a running history was not significantly associated with an osteoarthritis diagnosis.

The researchers surveyed almost 4,000 participants in the 2019 and 2021 Chicago Marathon for a detailed history of their running activity alongside a record of their knee pain and other arthritis symptoms.

The critical factors in developing knee arthritis were age, BMI, family history, and a previous knee injury or surgery.

This research follows a 2019 study published in the British Medical Journal for Sports & Exercise Medicine. This studied beginner, middle-aged runners and found that distance running did not result in the progression of meniscal tears and rebuilt some damaged cartilage. However, it did find damage to the cartilage and other tissues around the kneecap or patellofemoral compartment.

Common running knee injury conditions

Whether running long distances, doing couch to 5K or regularly attending your local Parkrun, it is essential to be aware of the effect running has on your joints. For each pound of body weight, your knee absorbs one and a half pounds of stress when you walk, which jumps to nearly four pounds when running.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)

This is the most common type of running knee injury. Pain is usually felt above, under, or just below the kneecap, and it typically worsens when you run or walk up the stairs. Often, the cause is biomechanical, which means the kneecap’s position is causing excessive friction or there is a muscle imbalance. It is treated with non-invasive measures such as rest and exercises aimed at improving strength and flexibility.

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS)

This thick band of tissue that runs all along the outside of your knee and thigh is the leading cause of pain on the outer part of the knee as it can rub against the lower part of your femur or thigh bone, which forms part of the knee joint. Treatment typically involves rest, anti-inflammatory medication and knee strengthening and stretching exercises.


The bursae are fluid-filled sacs that act as cushions in your joint. When inflamed, they can cause pain and tenderness and often occur due to overuse from running. Treatment includes rest, leg elevation, cold therapy and over-the-counter painkillers and anti-inflammatories. Surgery is not usually required, but a steroid injection might be recommended.

Prevention rather than cure

Many factors can affect your knees as you run, and steps you can take to prevent knee injury include:

  • Work on your core strength and mobility, as it can affect your running posture
  • Incorporate strength training into your routine, as the surrounding muscles play an essential role in protecting your knee
  • Be aware of any hip injuries or weaknesses, as these make you more susceptible to a knee injury
  • Try to maintain a healthy body weight, as a high BMI places more strain on your knee joints
  • Invest in a pair of running shoes that provide proper support
  • Stretch the muscles around your knees before a run, focusing on the quadriceps, hamstrings and calves
  • If your knees are sore after your run, use cold therapy
  • Ensure you have regular rest days to allow your muscles and joints to repair and recover
  • If you are developing pain with running, vary your exercise routine with lower-impact exercise, for example, cycling which puts less stress on the joints and can help to strengthen the muscles around the knee
  • Softer running surfaces such as a running track or a flat, smooth dirt trail can lessen the impact on the joints
  • Seek medical advice if your pain is persistent and not improved by conservative methods such as rest, ice and stretching

If you’re concerned about a running knee injury, you can arrange a consultation with Mr Neil Hunt for further investigations or treatment by making an appointment at one of his clinics or by calling Charissa Sullivan on 07724 909 414.

Following on from our previous article about what to do if an injury occurs on the slopes, here we recommend some pre-skiing exercises for preparing your knees for skiing.

To ensure a safe and enjoyable skiing experience, it’s crucial to prepare your body physically, especially when you’ve experienced an injury before and may have lost confidence.

By starting a pre-skiing exercise plan a few weeks ahead of your holiday, incorporating the right elements, you can reduce the risk of a knee injury on the slopes. So, what are the right elements of a pre-skiing exercise plan?

Why skiing preparation is so important

Skiing demands a unique set of physical attributes, including strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. Neglecting to undertake an exercise programme that incorporates these can increase the risk of injuries and impact your overall skiing performance. To optimise your readiness for the slopes, it is advisable to embark on a well-structured pre-skiing exercise plan.

A recent study emphasised the significance of targeted exercises to reduce the likelihood of severe knee injuries requiring surgery highlighting the importance of strengthening the upper leg muscles with exercises such as squats and lunges. Strengthening these muscles not only improves skiing performance but also helps to prevent common knee injuries associated with skiing, such as ACL tears that can be very painful and may need surgical reconstruction.

Another study of young alpine skiers looked at the specific benefits of targeted balance exercises for skiing. It found a correlation between enhanced balance and reduced injury risk on the slopes. By incorporating balance exercises into your pre-skiing routine, you can improve your ability to navigate varied terrains and respond effectively to unexpected challenges.

The demands placed on muscles during skiing require a combination of strength and endurance. Engaging in a well-rounded strength training programme can not only enhance your skiing performance but also contribute to overall joint stability and resilience.

Creating a balanced pre-skiing exercise plan

To make the most of your skiing adventure, it is recommended to initiate an exercise plan 8 to 12 weeks before your ski holiday. This time frame allows for gradual conditioning, helping your body to adapt to the specific demands of skiing. However, if you have less than 8 weeks, an exercise programme can still make a big difference. A physiotherapist or a qualified personal trainer can assess your current fitness level, identify areas of improvement and tailor a plan that aligns with your skiing goals, taking into account any pre-existing conditions. When you cannot see an exercise specialist, there are plenty of free online guides and exercise videos available that are easy to follow. Set aside 30 minutes to do these, two to three times a week – little and often is the best way for building up your fitness to be ready for the slopes.

The pre-skiing exercise plan should encompass a mix of cardiovascular conditioning, strength training, flexibility and balance exercises. Cardiovascular workouts, such as indoor or outdoor cycling and jogging, enhance overall endurance while strength exercises target key muscle groups involved in skiing. Exercises such as squats, side lunges, Russian twists and planks are all great ways to build up strength.

Balance drills, such as single-leg exercises and stability ball exercises, enhance proprioception and prepare your body for the uneven and challenging surfaces encountered on the slopes. Flexibility exercises, including dynamic stretches and yoga, also contribute to improved joint mobility and range of motion. These are particularly important for the fluid and dynamic movements required in skiing.

Help with preparing your knees for skiing

Collaborating with a qualified physiotherapist or personal trainer will help to ensure that your pre-skiing exercise plan is tailored to your unique needs and goals. These professionals possess a deep understanding of biomechanics, injury prevention, and rehabilitation, making them invaluable partners in your skiing preparation journey.

An exercise specialist can guide you through proper warm-up and cool-down routines, ensuring that your muscles are primed for skiing and aiding in post-activity recovery. Additionally, they can provide advice on injury prevention strategies and offer specific exercises to address any pre-existing conditions or vulnerabilities. However, building up your fitness and following a pre-skiing exercise plan on your own, or with family or friends, will also be beneficial.

Overall, investing time in a well-structured exercise plan can significantly enhance your skiing experience, improve confidence, and reduce the risk of injuries. The key is to start early, stay consistent, and prioritise your physical readiness for a memorable and injury-free skiing season.

Mr Neil Hunt is delighted to be seeing patients and performing surgery at the new, state-of-the-art Fortius Clinic on Wigmore Street. This newly established seven-storey, 79,000 sq ft, private orthopaedic hospital in the heart of London has 39 en-suite inpatient rooms, consultation and treatment rooms, three operating theatres fully equipped with the latest technology, two anaesthetic rooms and a recovery bay to support patients with their initial recovery comfortably and safely. With an imaging suite fully equipped with the latest MRI and CT scanners and X-ray technology, patients benefit from fast access to diagnostic scanning as well as the comprehensive physiotherapy suite.

Neil is delighted to be able to perform robotic knee replacement surgery with Mako Smart Robotics technology at both the Fortius Clinic, London and at the Nuffield Health Leeds Hospital. This cutting-edge technology represents a significant advancement in the field of orthopaedics, setting the standard for orthopaedic care by offering patients precision and personalised treatment. The Mako system enables Neil to plan and perform knee surgeries with unparalleled accuracy, ensuring optimal outcomes for his patients.

To book an appointment, please call the clinic telephone numbers below 07724 909 414 or email


📍 Fortius Clinic London
66 Wigmore Street


📍 Nuffield Health Leeds Hospital
2 Leighton St
Leeds LS1 3EB
Tel: 0113 3227251 (option 1; option 1 for outpatients)

As temperatures begin to drop, many people will be considering booking a ski holiday. Although ski injuries can be prevented with adequate preparation, accidents still happen. And knee injuries make up one-third of total recreational skiing injuries.

In recent years, the most common knee injury on the slopes involves a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Before the introduction of carving skis, damage to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was a more common knee injury, but it often accompanies an ACL injury.

Here, we look at ways to minimise the risk of a ski-related knee injury. Also, knee surgeon and ski enthusiast, Neil Hunt, gives his advice on what to do when a ski knee injury occurs.

Minimising a ski knee injury

Many injuries occur at the end of a long day on the slopes, when the muscles are tired. That’s why it’s important to prepare the muscles with strength and conditioning exercises, ideally practised several weeks in advance of a ski trip. Recent research found that exercises such as squats and lunges, which can help develop the thigh muscles ahead of a ski trip, can also lower the risk of needing a knee replacement later in life.

When you’ve not skied for a while, consider taking refresher classes with a qualified ski instructor. Understanding safe skiing techniques, as well as correct ways of falling and warming up, can keep you safe and injury-free. It is best not to take risks, and to know your limits when it comes to tackling different grades of runs. Also, it is important to allow the body to recover from a hard day on the slopes with adequate rest.

Choosing the correct ski equipment is another fundamental to staying safe. Boots need to be adapted specifically for you and your ability, but also for the ski conditions. For example, bindings that don’t release properly can put additional force through the knee, causing an injury.

What to do when a knee injury occurs on the slopes

Many ski injuries affecting the knee will be low grade, affecting the soft tissue and can be immediately treated with the RICE method (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation). If you’re still experiencing a lot of pain, then get a confirmed diagnosis, but don’t rush into surgery.

“The important consideration when a knee ski injury occurs, is to always get an early diagnosis and a consultation with a knee expert to discuss your options,” says knee surgeon Neil Hunt, advising that patients get advice sooner rather than later. “Ideally, get an MRI scan for an accurate diagnosis.”

With ACL injuries, an ACL repair may be the recommended treatment in many cases, rather than reconstruction surgery. But, this can only be decided with an early diagnosis and scan.

“A confirmed diagnosis will help with immediate treatment and rehabilitation, as well as indicating how urgently surgery may be required” he says.

And, in most cases, it’s prudent to wait until you’ve returned to the UK before seeking treatment.

Don’t be rushed into surgery

After experiencing a fall or injury when skiing abroad, you may be evacuated from the slope and taken straight to a surgeon, who may want to operate sooner than is necessary. Not knowing a surgeon’s credentials, alongside language or cultural medical barriers can put you at risk of long-term issues, such as knee stiffness. Also, understanding aftercare advice, including any recommended physio can be an issue.

“For the majority of cases, there are absolutely no negative implications in delaying treatment for a couple of weeks. It needs planning. But that doesn’t mean urgent surgery in the resort. And most of the time, it’s better not to.”

Medical technology is constantly evolving, leading to improvements in results. Robotic Arm Assisted Knee Surgery has been a significant breakthrough over the past decade, helping to reshape the way we view knee surgery.

What are the benefits of Robotic Arm Assisted Knee Surgery?

Compared with conventional knee surgery, robotic arm assisted surgery offers a range of potential benefits, principally increased accuracy in the planning and execution of the knee replacement.

One of the standout benefits of Robotic Arm Assisted Knee Surgery is its remarkable accuracy. The technology allows surgeons to plan to position implants in the best way for each individual patient. It then assists the surgeon in performing the surgery more accurately due to greater precision in the trimming of bone ends to fit the knee replacement with the removal of minimal bone. It also helps to reduce trauma to the soft tissues around the knee.

Before surgery, a CT scan generates an accurate 3D model of the patient’s joint anatomy. This enables the surgeon to plan the best position for the implants to give the best alignment and balance to the knee whilst removing the minimal amount of bone. The robotic arm then helps the surgeon trim the bone more accurately whilst preventing damage to the soft tissues.

When it comes to knee replacement surgery, accuracy is a prime factor in determining patient outcomes and robotic assisted knee surgery sets a new standard to help to achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

Neil Hunt is an experienced robotic knee surgeon and offers Mako Assisted Robotic Knee Replacement Surgery in London and Leeds.

Leeds knee surgery conference logoNeil was delighted to host the 2023 Knee Discussion Club meeting in York in September. The meeting was attended by 40 of the country’s top consultant specialist knee surgeons to discuss a range of issues related to knee surgery.

They spent an informative and enjoyable two days discussing topics ranging from advances in robotic surgery and the introduction of new integrated imaging and virtual reality assistance to the use of registries to optimise the outcomes of the patients they treat.

In addition, several guest speakers who were experts in specialised technology areas, attended to give their perspective on how the rapidly evolving technology and artificial intelligence fields could bring benefits to knee surgery with a focus on achieving the best possible outcomes for all patients.